By Staci Hemesath, Board Certified Specialist in Renal Nutrition, Registered Dietitian
As a renal dietitian, I know how hard it is for patients to follow a renal diet. It’s certainly a tricky one. How many people even know what phosphorus is before suffering kidney failure? And then there is potassium, sodium, protein, and fluid. Oh, but let’s not forget carbohydrate, sugar, and fat, as many kidney patients also struggle with diabetes and heart disease. To make it even more complicated, phosphorus and potassium aren’t even listed on food labels.
This is why the FDA’s proposal to update the current nutrition label is welcome news to the kidney community. The new labels would include potassium, calcium, and added sugars, helping fill in missing pieces of the renal diet puzzle. Vitamin D, a beneficial nutrient for kidney patients, will also be listed. Phosphorus is not part of the proposal, but the National Kidney Foundation has stated they will rally for its inclusion. (Wouldn’t that be wonderful?)
Be Heard – FDA Encourages Public Comments for Proposed Label
The FDA is accepting comments from experts and members of the public until June 2, 2014 before making the final ruling. This is your chance to weigh in and be heard by the FDA.
Renal diet prescriptions would certainly be easier for patients to follow if they knew how much potassium, calcium, and phosphorus were actually in the food they purchased. For many, this is a life or death matter. On behalf of the 26 million Americans with chronic kidney disease, let’s speak up and bring forth change.
Now there is more evidence that malnutrition creates negative outcomes post discharge. A clinical study conducted by researchers at Brigham and Women’s Hospital evaluated the nutritional status of patients admitted to Intensive Care Units (ICU) and determined outcomes for those patients.
The study compared ICU outcomes for patients who were not malnourished upon admission, to those with either protein energy malnutrition (PEM) or nonspecific malnutrition. This was a relatively large study with over 3000 patients who survived hospitalization and were discharged into their homes.
Findings showed ICU patients who were malnourished upon admittance to ICU were:
More likely to be readmitted within 30 days of discharge
More likely to die within 90 days of discharge
In looking at the data, it is clear that PEM upon admission to ICU is a contributor to readmissions and mortality in discharged patients. Importantly, the study also found that use of various drugs increased with malnourished patients.
The researchers underscored the importance of post-hospitalization nutrition. The fact that we discharge patients without knowing if they have food at home is a concern and has been shown to be a contributing factor to readmissions and emergency department visits.
Currently, estimates are that readmissions in the Medicare populations are costing $15 billion every year. Simply feeding people prior to admission and post discharge could go a long way to improving outcomes and reducing overall healthcare costs in the United States.
Mogensen K, et al. “The association of malnutrition and 30-day post discharge hospital readmission in ICU survivors: A registry based cohort study” SCCM 2013; Abstract 54.
A recent article in the Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior provides some startling information about restaurant foods. The investigators analyzed the nutrient content of meals at full-service restaurant chains (as opposed to fast food restaurants).
As part of the Affordable Care Act, restaurants (full service or fast food) with more than 20 locations will be required to provide nutrition information.
The findings from the investigation were that, on the average, full-service restaurant meals are extremely high in sodium at over 3500 milligrams and high in calories at nearly 1500 per meal.
For comparison, the American Heart Association recommendations for sodium intake are 1500 to 2400 milligrams PER DAY. But the average citizen consumes around 3400 milligrams each day, which is too much.
Further, the average citizen needs only 2000 calories PER DAY. Eating a typical restaurant meal leaves only 500 calories for breakfast, lunch and snacks.
I read the article with some skepticism. We see these “OMG” releases fairly frequently. This one struck a note with me since the sodium was so high in the restaurant meals, with the average meal having over 4 times the recommended level of sodium per meal.
I think that if it is necessary to eat at full-service chain restaurant or a fast food restaurant, I will pay very close attention to the nutrition facts and select those meals that are lower in sodium.
If you cannot cook your own meals, an alternative to eating out is finding restaurant-quality meals that meet your nutritional requirements, like those provided by Mom’s Meals.
Source: Nutritional Value of Meals at Full-service Restaurant Chains, Auchincloss,A., et al. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 75-81, January 2014
The last thing anyone wants to hear before Thanksgiving is diet advice. But if you want to ensure a better chance that you’ll celebrate many more holiday seasons with your loved ones, consider cutting back on sodium, starting now.
Heart disease, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, stroke, and other heart-related ailments are America’s number one killer.
A recent study conducted at the University of Michigan, showed that healthy eating habits can significantly reduce high blood pressure and improve heart function, even in heart failure patients.
“We all look forward to sharing a feast with those we love,” said Rick Anderson, president of Mom’s Meals. “But that doesn’t mean we can lose sight of what’s most important to our health, especially if we want many more years with those gathered around the table. Cutting back on salt, which hides in so many of our foods, is crucial.”
The Michigan study had patients only eat meals prepared for them in the kitchen of the university’s Clinical Research Unit, and according to the DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) recommendations. Meals were high in potassium, magnesium, calcium, and antioxidants, and low in sodium, with just 1,150 milligrams or less, far lower than the average intake of an American adult of 4,200 mg a day for men and 3,300 a day for women.
Most participants in the study were in their 60s and 70s.
In the study, participants only ate the provided diet, which met the recommendations for high blood pressure treatment by the American Heart Association and the U.S. National Institutes of Health. After three weeks, they saw a drop in blood pressure, similar to that achieved by taking medication for the condition, suggesting that diet plays an important role in the progression of heart failure.
“It is interesting to note that a change was seen in only three weeks,” said Anderson. “Our heart-healthy menu has meals with 600-mg or less of sodium, and feedback on their taste has been nothing less than stellar.”
Although this blog might buck the trend in terms of length, the topic is important, since about 45% of those over age 65 older have some chronic kidney disease (CKD) that, if untreated, could lead to “End Stage Kidney Disease” (ESRD) and the hemodialysis that accompanies this condition.
For many, simple changes in the way we eat can stop the progression of CKD.
CKD is one of the most prevalent and expensive chronic conditions in the United States. Approximately 26- million people have CKD and it is estimated that over 17% of the costs in the fee-for-service component of Medicare are for mild to moderate CKD related issues (2012 US Renal Data System). If dialysis and kidney transplants (ESRD) are added to the total costs, almost 25% of Medicare expenditures are on CKD and ESRD.
In the most basic sense, kidneys serve as a blood filtering organ. Indeed, blood flow through the kidneys is one of the highest of all organs, with over 20% of blood flow from the heart going directly to them. The kidneys serve to filter out wastes from daily metabolism and ingested foods, and in doing so, they help regulate and maintain a proper fluid and chemical balance to produce urine.
During normal metabolism and health, kidneys operate with a large filtration rate (glomerular filtration rate, GFR) range. At this level, kidneys are able to filter wastes including protein breakdown products and water. The filtration rate of certain molecules (albumin or creatinine, which can be tested by simple blood tests) can be measured to estimate GFR. As we age, GFR may decrease a bit.
However, chronic kidney disease is recognized when GFR and the ability to filter out waste reaches a certain level that is below normal GFR. End stage renal disease (ESRD) is stage five, and usually means the kidneys are operating at less than 15% of normal GFR.
The importance of nutrition in the development and progression of CKD is clear. High blood pressure and diabetes are recognized as being the cause of two thirds of the cases of CKD as both put undue strain on kidneys. In many cases these can both be controlled by an awareness of what and how much of certain foods should be consumed.
Typical ESRD patients require weekly hours of being hooked up to a dialysis machine, which literally filters the blood through a series of different devices. I have heard dialysis being comparable to running a half marathon with the same amount of fatigue.
In between dialysis session patients must keep their fluid intake, salt, and other mineral intakes low to avoid fluid buildup in the body. As the fluid builds up in the body between dialysis sessions, fatigue and other issues may arise. Excessive fluid buildup can impair heart and lung function and lead to death.
What can you do to prevent or slow kidney disease?
Recommendations for prevention of diabetes and hypertension apply. Eat a healthy diverse diet with fresh prepared meals, avoiding high salt, high fat processed foods, eat vegetables and fruits, and get some exercise – 30 minutes a day will do it.
If you are diagnosed with CKD, the first step is to follow the advice of your doctor. It might also be wise to consult with a Registered Dietitian well versed in renal nutrition. While each stage of CKD has some specific nutrient requirements, diets in the earliest stages focus primarily on consumption of a normal, heart healthy diet.
Recommendations for a renal friendly diet include consuming the amount of calories to that normally required for the level of activity, observing sodium and potassium intakes to keep within heart healthy guidelines, restricting the amount of phosphorus consumed and enjoy certain fruits and vegetables, grains, and likely restrict protein. If you have high blood pressure, sodium intake levels are critical and must not exceed those recommended by your health providers.
One of the most important talks he heard was about low sodium diets and how they impact heart function.
Dr. Scott Hummel of the University of Michigan and several colleagues reported on patients that were fed the D.A.S.H. diet for 21 days. (The DASH diet refers to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, which is a diet that controls sodium intake to less than 2300 mg/day and is recommended by the National Institutes of Health to reduce high blood pressure.) It has been shown in many studies to effectively reduce blood pressure in pre- and hypertensive individuals.
In the study reported by Dr. Hummel, the 13 patients that were given the DASH diet showed significant positive changes to heart function within 21 days of being on the diet.
Improvements included an increase in how much blood was being pumped into the arteries and less wear and tear on the heart. The patients were all in their 60s and 70s and food was provided to them. Diet can make a difference in certain chronic conditions, including heart failure.
The incidence of chronic conditions in the aging population is growing, as is the cost to treat the symptoms of these chronic conditions. Heart disease and hypertension can be treated by drugs, however while these may be effective, they are also expensive.
Diets such as DASH can reduce the need for certain drugs and thereby reduce the overall expenditure on healthcare.
And after all, wouldn’t you rather eat your way to better health rather than taking pills?
The health of those we love, especially as they age, is of primary concern.
Believe it or not, falls are the second leading cause of accidental death in the U.S., yet they are an often overlooked problem for seniors. Seventy-five percent of all falls occur in the senior population and statistics show that falls can lead to significant health declines.
Falls are the most common cause of hospital admission for trauma, and the most common cause of injury amongst seniors. Hospitalization due to falls occurs five times as much as from any other cause of injury. It should come as no surprise that the majority of falls occur in two rooms of the house; the bathroom and the kitchen.
Mom’s Meals provides tips for how to prevent falls, allowing seniors a higher quality of life:
Eliminate household hazard like hard to see steps and throw rugs, which can be the cause of a majority of falls. Seniors should eliminate throw rugs, or make sure they are securely in place so that they do not slide or move, causing an obstacle.
Meal preparation can be particularly precarious, as water or oil may splatter, leaving the floor slippery. Making the kitchen a more efficient workspace can help reduce falls but when food preparation becomes too hazardous, consider having nutritious meals delivered from Mom’s Meals. Meals only need to be heated and served, eliminating extra hazards in the kitchen.
Make the bathroom safer with grab bars and non-slip mats. Adding hand rails, non-slip surfaces, grab bars, and even going as far as changing out tubs to allow for entry without having to step over a barrier is very helpful. Permanent grab bars should be installed by the shower, toilet and tub. Shower seats can be very helpful, as well as adding good lighting and non-skid mats.
Make walkways safer. Clear clutter and other hazards that could cause a trip and fall. Stairs, walking paths, and hallways in the home should be well lit so that seniors can traverse them without peril, especially at night.
Wear well-fitting shoes and clothes. Shoes that are too big, bathrobes or night wear that drags, pants that are too long, etc. can all lead to tripping, slipping, and falling. Consider wearing fitted slippers with a non-slip sole during the day, and choosing clothing that does not drag on the ground.
Everyone expects some health problems as they age. After all, bodies get older and systems and organs, bones and muscles all begin to slow down.
However, today, more seniors are facing more multiple health issues than ever before. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has reported significant increases in the proportion of seniors with “multiple chronic conditions,” including hypertension (high blood pressure), diabetes, cancer, stroke, emphysema, asthma and kidney disease.
Between 2000 and 2010, the number of seniors with both high blood pressure and diabetes almost doubled, from 9% to 15%. The number of those with both high blood pressure and heart disease jumped from 18% to 21% and the number of people battling both high blood pressure and cancer rose from 8% to 11%.
“Despite improved medical care, more and more seniors are finding it difficult to manage their health today,” said Rick Anderson, president of Mom’s Meals. “When faced with both diabetes and renal disease, or a heart condition and diabetes, the overwhelming amount of information they need to remember can be daunting.”
Decreased mobility, economic hardship, and the side effects of poor health may make it challenging for seniors to get to the market for fresh foods, to socialize, and to maintain habits that lead to good health. Loss of loved ones, and not being as “useful” or “needed,” can lead to depression. Loss of bladder control, dental issues, and perhaps no longer being able to drive can also contribute to an inability to maintain good health.
“Having more than one chronic condition makes it far more likely a senior will be hospitalized and can lead to a greater economic burden for the seniors and their caregivers,” said Anderson. “Caregivers are finding it far more challenging to manage the day to day health of their loved ones as it involves increased doctor’s visits, more prescriptions to fill and stay on top of, more dietary restrictions, decreased mobility and health, and increased expense.”
“Ordering Mom’s Meals really changed my life and my parents’ lives, too,” said Joanne S., 61, of Boulder, CO. “Living hundreds of miles away from my aging parents, we both found peace of mind, not to mention terrific tasting meals, with the delivery of food right to their door, especially for my dad who is living with both diabetes and heart disease.”
That lovable carrot munching bunny and the iconic spinach-guzzling sailor were on to something.
Eating enough fruits and vegetables, particularly leafy greens like spinach, has been linked, time and time again, to a longer life and a higher quality of life. In fact, a study recently conducted in Sweden showed that eating fewer than five servings of fruit and veggies each day is linked to a higher chance of early mortality.
“Yes, Popeye had it right with the spinach,” said Rick Anderson, president of Mom’s Meals. “We design our meals to have an abundance of the freshest, healthiest ingredients we can find, and we get constant feedback from customers about how much they appreciate it.”
Does this mean if you eat fruits and veggies you will live longer? No necessarily. But a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is always healthier than one filled with processed foods.
Other factors play a role, too, including gender, smoking, exercise, alcohol consumption, as well as weight, but with all that taken into account, those who reported eating at least five servings of fruit and vegetables daily did live longer, according to the Swedish study.
While starting young with a diet rich in fruits and vegetables certainly has health benefits, it is never too late to improve your diet by incorporating more fruits and veggies into it. Registered dietitians suggest trying oranges, kiwis, apples, bananas and berries, or vegetables including radishes, carrots, beets, lettuce, cabbage, tomatoes, and of course, leafy greens like kale and spinach.
Mom’s Meals heart-healthy menu follows guidelines from the American Heart Association, with less than 600 mg of sodium per meal. Favorites include Grilled Chicken Breast with Herbed Potatoes and Broccoli and our Salmon Patty with Rice Pilaf, Seasoned Peas and Pearl Onions.
“For those who are homebound, and for those taking care of them, making meals like this on a regular basis can often be impossible,” said Anderson.
“Many seniors struggle to get the needed fruits and vegetables in their diet. Irregular trips to the grocery store, dietary restrictions, and struggles with dental issues can make it a challenge for seniors to get the recommended five daily servings,” said Anderson. “Using a home delivery meal service like ours can insure regular delivery of fresh foods, and the adequate servings of fruits and vegetables to help prolong life and improve health.”
Mom's Meals does not claim to treat or cure heart disease, diabetes, kidney disease or celiac and is not a substitute for medications. Consult with your physician or Registered Dietitian before starting any nutritional program.